Throughout history, people have dyed their textiles using familiar, locally available materials and archaeologists have discovered evidence of textile dyeing dating as far back as the Neolithic period. Plants, invertebrates and minerals are all sources of natural dyes with the majority derived from plant sources such as roots, berries, bark, leaves, lichen and fungi.

 

We have been experimenting with making dye from lichen with excellent results. Click through for our step by step instructions.

 

There are a vast number of plants from which you can obtain dye. I have always presumed that most of them would produce decidedly earthy colours compared to the bright synthetic dyes we take for granted in modern life. I could not have been more wrong.

Please note that not all lichens produce a dye so please do your research before you forage for them. Many grow exceptionally slowly, so it is essential to gather responsibly to avoid damaging colonies. We currently have two lichen dye projects on the go.

 

Ochrolechia Tartarea

We have been experimenting with making dye from lichen with excellent results. Click through for our step by step instructions.

 

Also known as Cudbear, this lichen was traditionally used in the Highlands of Scotland to produce a vivid purple dye. Growing almost exclusively in the far North of Scotland, the sample I used I purchased from a lovely lady at the Wilderness Gathering who is an expert on Natural Dyeing. This lichen needs to be fermented in an ammonia solution to extract the intense colour which can range from bright pinks and purples to maroon.

 

Evernia Prunastri

We have been experimenting with making dye from lichen with excellent results. Click through for our step by step instructions.

 

More commonly known as Oakmoss this widespread lichen is found growing throughout the northern hemisphere. Used extensively in perfume production it can often be found on the ground beneath oak trees making it an easy lichen to gather. I collected the jar full that I’ve used in the dye below from the ground during my dog walks. I typically find a couple of pieces each day. Utilizing the ammonia method outlined below it yields a lilac/purple dye, alternatively, a yellow colour can be prepared by just boiling the Oakmoss in water.

 

Preparing lichen dye

We have been experimenting with making dye from lichen with excellent results. Click through for our step by step instructions.

 

Half fill a glass jar with the lichen. Add a mixture of one part ammonia to two parts water. Oxygen is required for the chemical reaction to take place, so the advice is to fill the jar three-quarters full with the solution and to remove the lid to replenish the oxygen every so often. Keep the jar in a warm place and shake vigorously each day. The dye should be left to ferment for at least three months to achieve an intense dye colour.

 

To use the Lichen Dye

We have been experimenting with making dye from lichen with excellent results. Click through for our step by step instructions.

 

Pour half of the lichen dye liquid through a strainer into a saucepan. Return the strained lichens to the jar and top up with a new ammonia/water mix – you should get another couple of batches before you lichen is ‘spent’.

Add water to your dye pot and submerge the material you are dyeing (having prepared it by soaking in water first). Bring to the boil and simmer gently for about an hour or until you achieve the colour you want. Remove your dyed product and leave to dry. A new wet item can be added to the pot once the dye has cooled and the process repeated.

 

We have been experimenting with making dye from lichen with excellent results. Click through for our step by step instructions.

Each subsequent dye will be lighter as the dye pot becomes exhausted resulting in a colour variation. Our photos show this in the three darkest skeins. The lighter ones were achieved by popping the wool skeins in the bath for a minute or two before removing them. The dye we used for all the skeins, and the unspun fleece came from the Ochrolechia Tartarea lichen. The Evernia Prunastri is still steeping, and we will share our results from that in a future post.

Lichen dye does not need a mordant. The colour will fix and should not fade. Some lichen dyes are photo-sensitive so the dyed item will change colour when exposed to intense sunlight. I hope to experiment with one of these lichens soon.

For more traditional nature craft inspiration check out our How to Make Oak Gall Ink and our How to Make Pine Resin Salve Posts.

 

We have been experimenting with making dye from lichen with excellent results. Click through for our step by step instructions.

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24 comments

Pavithra September 25, 2018 - 8:53 am

Hi Sarah. I am a research scholor interested in lichen dyes and its fastness properties. Can we have a personal discussion about this.
Waiting for your reply

Reply
Sarah - Craft Invaders September 25, 2018 - 10:02 am

Hi Pavithra. Drop me an email at sarah@craftinvaders.co.uk and let me know what you need 🙂

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Diane July 13, 2018 - 7:47 am

Hi Sarah, do you just simmer the wool without stirring – I’m worried that my wool will felt otherwise. Would you recommend dying the wool in the raw state or skeins -which produced the most consistent colour?
Fabulous post by the way, I’m inspired! Would love to see more posts on natural dyes.

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Sarah - Craft Invaders July 13, 2018 - 8:20 am

Hi Diane. No I didn’t stir mine although I did use a wooden spoon to push everything right into the dye to start. I think the raw wool did show a slightly more consistent colour but I’d say that there wasn’t much in it. Thank you for your questions and feedback, I will do some more posts – I have some oakmoss dye which should be ready and am also growing dyers camomile to try out 🙂

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Diane July 14, 2018 - 5:23 pm

Thanks Sarah, I just started 2 batches today, one oak moss and the other is (I think) a flavoparmelia strain, can’t wait to see how they turn out! How long did it take for the colour to change -they are both a murky green at the moment I’ve grown a double red sweetcorn this year and the cobs, husks and stalks are a deep burgundy colour which runs when boiled, I’m going to attemp to dye a small amount of wool with it. Thanks again for getting me started on this

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Sarah - Craft Invaders July 14, 2018 - 7:11 pm

It took at least 2 or 3 weeks for them to look more like dye and less like pond water. I was a bit rubbish at remembering to take the lids off to let oxygen in but I did think that they started to change a day or so after I did that on one occasion. The sweetcorn sounds gorgeous – please do let me know how it works out!

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Linda at Mixed Kreations December 12, 2017 - 2:41 pm

This is so cool! One would never have thought that something that color could produces such a pretty colored dye.

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Sarah - Craft Invaders January 15, 2018 - 6:19 pm

It’s an amazing colour isn’t it Linda. My daughter and I were delighted when it started changing colour in the jar:)

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Florence @ VintageSouthernPicks December 12, 2017 - 12:40 am

What’s a “mordant”? This is such fascinating info! I’m so totally surprised that those rather blah-looking lichens produce such vibrant colors! Berries yielding dye I can understand, but lichens! Fascinating! What color were the skeins to start with? Is this what is meant by “organic” yarns?

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Sarah - Craft Invaders January 15, 2018 - 6:22 pm

A mordant is a chemical that fixes dye Florence. The skeins were off white so straight from white sheep without having been bleached or anything and organic means grown or produced without the use of any artificial chemicals such as pesticides (organic food is big over here in the UK)

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Jessica December 11, 2017 - 7:58 pm

You always do the coolest projects! I knew that you make dyes from plants, but I had no idea that you could get such beautiful colors!

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Sarah - Craft Invaders January 15, 2018 - 6:24 pm

Thanks Jess, it is a beautiful colour – I’ve definitely got the natural dye bug now !

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